Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer
Agilent GC(6890) MS(5973N)
Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) is an analytical technique that combines the separation properties of gas chromatography with the detection feature of mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample. GC is used to separate the volatile and thermally stable organic compounds in a sample whereas MS fragments the analyte and identifies it by matching the mass of breakdown products through a mass spectrometry compound database. Quantification of known compounds is then performed using a calibration curve using various concentrations of standards.
Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometer
Thermo Finnigan LCQ Deca XP MAX
Over the past decade with introduction of various ionization techniques, liquid chromatography mass spectrometer (LCMS) has undergone tremendous technological improvement allowing for its applications to many metabolic components such as proteins, peptides, carbohydrates, DNA, and drugs, natural products from natural-products extracts, and pure substances from mixtures of chemical intermediates. It plays a significant role in organic chemical research, pharmaceutical, agrochemical, food, and other industries. In principle is similar to Gas Chromatography. However, it is the method of choice for the analysis of semi to non-volatile compounds, which are of medium to large molecular weights in the liquid phase. LCMS is a powerful tool with very high sensitivity in applications towards the separation and identification of mixed chemicals.
Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrophotometer
Perkin Elmer Optima dv8300 & dv4300
Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrophotometer (ICPOES) is a solution based technique whereby samples are prepared and introduced in liquid forms (aqueous or organic solvent) for analysis. With utilization of argon a plasma, having a temperature as high as 8000°C is capable to thermally excite nearly all elements which then emit light (photons) at their characteristic wavelengths. The respective light emission are collected at two view modes (axial and radial) by the spectrophotometer and subsequently resolved into a spectrum. By measuring the intensity of the emitted light from a series of prepared solutions of elements the concentration of particular element(s) can be derived from a calibration curve.
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer
Perkin Elmer AAnalyst 400
Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is a spectrophotometric procedure for the quantitative determination of single elements using the absorption of at a specific wavelength by free atoms in the gaseous state. Liquid samples are volatilized in either a flame or a graphite furnace. In analytical chemistry the technique is used for determining the concentration of a particular element (the analyte) in a sample to be analyzed. AAS can be used to individually determine over 70 different elements in solution. It is a very cost effective and sensitive method for the routine analysis of single elements in solution.
A CT scan, also called X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) or computerized axial tomography scan (CAT scan), makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual ‘slices’) of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting. A MicroCT scanner is specifically designed to study small objects (centimeter scale) Examples of objects, which can be analysed by this technique to form 3 dimensional images are: small skeletons, plant root distribution in soil and many other geological and biological samples.
Environment Scanning Electron Microscope
Environment Scanning Electron Microscope
The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) is a scanning electron microscope, which permits wet and insulating samples to be imaged without prior specimen preparation. A low pressure (up to around 10 torr) of a gas can be accommodated around the sample; hence, hydrated samples can be maintained in their native state. It works because whether the gas is water or some other gas, ions formed on collisions between electrons emitted from the sample and the gaseous molecules drift back towards the sample surface helping to reduce charge build up. This eliminates the need for insulators to be subjected to a conductive surface coating. These two key advantages of ESEM open up a wide range of materials to the power of scanning electron microscopy.
Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer
SerCon Hydra 20-20
Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is a specialization of mass spectrometry, in which mass spectrometric methods are used to measure the relative abundance of isotopes in a given sample.
This technique has two different applications in the earth and environmental sciences. The analysis of ‘stable isotopes’ is normally concerned with measuring isotopic variations arising from mass-dependent isotopic fractionation in natural systems. On the other hand, radiogenic isotope analysis involves measuring the abundances of decay-products of natural radioactivity, and is used in most long-lived radiometric dating methods.
Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) or also called Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA) technique, up to 16 analytical measurements can be made on a single sample simultaneously. The Skalar, offers over 300 proven applications utilizing various combinations of automatic dilutions, additions, mixing, heating, dialysis, extractions, distillation, digestion, phase-separation, hydrolysis, ion-exchange/reduction and more. The Skalar San+ Analyzer is a “workhorse” for many routine laboratories; analyzing waters, soils, fertilizer, detergents, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, food and beverages such as beer, wine, milk, etc. Skalar methods meet standard methodology whenever possible, such as EPA, ASTM, ISO, AOAC, Standard Methods, EBC, Coresta, etc.
Gas Chromatography for Greenhouse Gases
Agilent 7890A GC
Simultaneous analysis of greenhouse gases by gas chromatography (for CH4, CO2 and N2O in gas samples).
An Agilent 7890A GC system is configured with a single channel using two detectors (flame ionization detector (FID) and micro-electron capture detector) for the analysis of CO2, CH4, and N2O in air samples. Low concentrations of CO2 can be analyzed by a methanizer with an FID. Results from various methods demonstrated high sensitivity and excellent repeatability for the required analyses.